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dryasWHITE DRYAS Dryas octopetala White dryas is a dwarf, mat-forming shrub. The prostrate, trailing branches rootfreely, and the stems are leafy with dried persistent leaves. The dark green leaves are leathery, wrinkled, lanceolate, coarsely serrated on the margins and whitish-hairy on the underside, giving the leaf a two-tone appearance. Each erect, two- to 10-inch stem bears a single, large, white flower with eight to 10 petals and numerous stamens. The persistent styles elongate into long plumes and are featherlike in appearance. HABITAT/RANGE: Prefers wet, gravelly, or stony soils of high montane or above timberline. Well-distributed from Alaska to Labrador, and in the Rocky Mountains, south to Colorado and northeast Oregon. Flowers July through August. FACTS/USES: The specific name means eight-petaled. This shrub has many adaptations for its high, cold environment.


0WOODS STRAWBERRY Fragaria vesca Woods strawberry is a low, perennial herb that spreads by stolons or runners. The plant ascends from a scaly rootstock, producing a small, basal clump of compound leaves. The leaves have three coarsely toothed leaflets that generally are bright yellow-green and prominently veined. The flowers are borne in small clusters and have five white petals and 20-25 stamens. The aggregate fruit is red, fleshy and juicy. Another related species (F. virginiana) is differentiated by glaucous, bluish-green, thick and not prominently veined leaves. HABITAT/RANGE: An inhabitant of moist meadows, stream banks and open woods. Widely distributed throughout temperate North America, Europe, Asia and South America. Blooms in spring and early summer. FACTS/USES: Vesca means weak or feeble. The berries are sweet and delicious raw or cooked into jams, jellies or syrups


avensLARGE-LEAVED AVENS Geum macrophyllum Large-leaved avens is a delicate-looking plant that grows up to three feet tall with several stems and a few small half-inch, bright yellow flowers on delicate branches at the top. The flowers become rounded seed heads. Geums, or avens, are very similar to cinquefoils (Potentilla). But Geum's style is jointed and bent near the center, and its pinnately compound leaves have a few large, one-inch leaflets that are narrow at the base and broad at the tip. HABITAT/RANGE: This moist, mountain meadow and woodland flower is found from Alaska to the Dakotas, south to northern New Mexico and Baja California. Flowers late May through July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means large-leaved. Other members of the Geum, specifically rivaie, a northeast species, are known for their chocolate-like beverage brewed from the rootstocks.


alpineavensALPINE AVENS Geum rossii Alpine avens is a bright yellowflower reminiscent of cinquefoil or mountain buttercups, but the grayish, hairy leaves are pinnately divided into many narrow, irregular segments, helping to differentiate this species. The stems, ascending from rhizomes, rarely exceed one foot in height and bear one to four flowers. Like most alpine plants, this species often forms a dense cluster. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant is a dweller of moist soils in alpine meadows and rocky crevices. It is a cordilleran species, found from Alaska to New Mexico and Arizona, and also inhabits Asia. Because it is an alpine species, it blooms late in the season, from mid to late summer. FACTS/USES: As an adaptation to its alpine environment- which includes desiccating winds and intense solar radiation-this plant has a cover of fine gray hairs that acts both as an insulator and a filter.


prarie smokePRAIRIE SMOKE Geum triflorum This plant is a tufted perennial ascending six to 20 inches from a stout rootstock. The leaves are mainly basal, covered with hairs and pinnately compound into fernlike segments. The pink or reddish bell-shaped flowers usually are borne three in a cyme and nod while in blossom. As the flowers mature, the stems become erect and the styles elongate into feather-like plumes. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant prefers dry to moist grasslands, sagebrush plains to subalpine meadows. It is distributed widely across southern Canada and the northern United States, south to New Mexico and central California. Flowers from spring to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The specific name means three-flowered. The common name, prairie smoke, refers to the cluster of reddish, plumose styles, which have the appearance of a puff of smoke. The boiled roots produce a tonic tea.


ocean sprayOCEAN-SPRAY Hotodiscus discolor Ocean-spray is a bushy shrub with somewhat spreading branches; it grows from two to 15 feet in height. The stems are erect and the young twigs are finely hairy, while the older bark is grayish-brown. The alternate leaves are somewhat egg-shaped, with double-toothed margins. The upper surface is dark green and slightly hairy, while the lower surface is grayish or white-woolly. The small, numerous, cream-colored flowers form a dense terminal cluster or panicle. This plant easily can be confused with spireas. HABITAT/RANGE: It occupies a variety of sites-from moist, shady forests of coastal plains to low mountains and arid coniferous forests. It grows from British Columbia to western Montana, south to southern California. Flowers June to July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means two-colored or of different colors.


0TALL CINQUEFOIL Potentilla arguta This is a tall-usually more than 16 inches high-rather weedy-looking perennial herb with somewhat sticky glandular hairs on the stem and inflorescence. The leaves are pinnately divided into five to 11 leaflets, which are lobed, toothed and hairy. The pale yellow, cream or white flowers usually are crowded on a narrow cyme. While in bloom, the petals equal or slightly exceed the length of the sepals but, in fruit, the sepals enlarge and enclose the cluster of achenes. HABITAT/RANGE: It grows in rich, deep loams of moist meadows, along irrigation ditches and open hillsides, but not in alpine areas. It occurs from Alaska to Alberta, south along the mountain ranges to Utah and Arizona. Flowers May to July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means sharp-toothed. Many species of cinquefoil have been used medicinally, mainly as an astringent


0SHRUBBY CINQUEFOIL Potentilla fruticosa This is a diffusely branched shrub, which generally grows one to two feet tall but occasionally reaches five feet, under good growing conditions. The stem is woody, twisted and tough, with silky-hairy young stems maturing to shreddy, brown bark with age. Its leaves are grayish-green and pinnately divided into three to seven linear, leathery leaflets that are silky-hairy underneath. In blossom, the shrub produces a profusion of bright yellow, saucer-shaped, half-inch- to one-inch-diameter flowers. The seeds, or achenes, are small, numerous and densely hairy. HABITAT/RANGE: It has a wide altitudinal range, from foothills to subalpine slopes, but it prefers moist, cool climates. It is distributed from Alaska to Labrador, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, New Mexico and California, and Eurasia. Blooms through the summer. FACTS/ USES: The specific name means shrubby or bushy.


0SLENDER CINQUEFOIL Potentilla gracilis Slender cinquefoil is an erect, bushy perennial herb ascending one to two feetfrom deep, woody taproots. The flowers are arranged in a loose, many-flowered cyme with small, leafy bracts at the base. Each saucer-shaped flower usually is a deep yellow, about one-quarter to one-half inch in diameter, with 20 stamens in three rows. The leaves are mostly basal and digitately compound usually into seven green, toothed leaflets. There are numerous Potentilla species and differentiation can be difficult. HABITAT/RANGE: It is common on dry, sandy, gravelly, or clay loams of grasslands, sagebrush deserts to moist mountain slopes at subalpine. Distributed widely from Alaska to Saskatchewan, south to New Mexico and Baja, California, it blooms in June and July. FACTS/ USES: The Latin generic name is derived from potens, meaning powerful, in reference to its medicinal properties.


chokecherryCOMMON CHOKECHERRY Prunus virginiana Chokecherry is a leafy shrub or small tree that can grow up to 25 feet tall. The shiny, green leaves are elliptic, with a fine, ^ toothed margin. Small, numerous, whitish or cream-colored flowers are clustered in a raceme at the ends of leafy branches. The flowers later develop into a dark purple or black, juicy, berrylike drupe. HABITAT/RANGE: It prefers sunny, moist sites, especially along stream or river courses, seeps, and canyons, in addition to well-drained sandy soils of hillsides and talus slopes. It is widespread throughout southern California and the United States. Flowers usually in May or June and fruits in August or September. FACTS/USES: Chokecherry is edible, but it does pucker the mouth. When ample sugar is added, it makes delicious jellies, syrup or wine. This species is in the cherry genus and, though the seeds are nutritious, they, like peach pits, contain cyanogenetic poison.


antelope bitterbrushANTELOPE BITTERBRUSH Purshia tridenfata This is a widely branched, semierect, grayish-green shrub with small, bright yellow flowers. This long-living, drought-resistant species usually is two to six feet tall. The leaves and flowers are two identifying characteristics: The leaves are clustered, wedge-shaped, three-toothed, and green on the upper surface, with a grayish woolly under surface; the flowers are solitary on short branchlets but clustered on the outer branches. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant prefers well-drained, sandy, gravelly soils and southern exposures of arid plains, foothills, and mountain slopes. It is distributed widely from British Columbia to Montana, south to New Mexico and California. Blooms May to July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means three-toothed. The common name is appropriate because the foliage has a very bitter taste. It is one of the most important Western browse plants for game animals.


0WOOD'S ROSE Rosa woodsii Wood's rose is an erect, trailing or climbing shrub one to six feettall. The stems usually have prickles and alternate leaves with flat-winged stipules. Each leaf is pinnately compound into five or seven leaflets that are elliptic and sawtooth-margined. The flowers-comprised of five heart-shaped petals and numerous yellow stamens-are showy, fragrant and red or pink in color. The fruit, or hip, is orange-red, with long tapering sepals. HABITAT/RANGE: It is abundant in moist sites of dry habitats, especially along riverbanks, canyons and open woods of lowlands and foothills. It occurs from British Columbia to Montana, south to Texas and southern California and in areas of Wisconsin and Kansas. Flowers May into July. FACTS/USES: The rose hips are edible and known for their concentration of vitamin C. The hips can be eaten raw, stewed or cooked into jams and jellies, with sugar.


rasberryRED RASPBERRY Pubus idaeus Wild red raspberry is similar to our cultivated garden variety, but smaller. This perennial shrub is strongly armed with prickles, especially near the base of the stem. The compound leaves have three to five sharply toothed leaflets. The white five-petaled flowers are in terminal or axillary clusters and mature into dark red, aggregate berries. HABITAT/RANGE: Inhabits wet or dry woods along mountain trails and rocky slopes. A native shrub overmuch of temperate North America and Eurasia. Blooms May through June, and produces fruit mid-July to September. FACTS/USES: Raspberries are excellent eaten raw or cooked into jams or syrup. Boiling the leaves for 20 minutes can produce a tea. The simmered roots have a number of medicinal uses-an eyewash, a treatment for weak lungs, a general tonic, and a relief for summer diarrhea.


0THIMBLEBERRY Fiubusparviflorus A plant very similar to red raspberry (R. idaeus) but more robust, with large, deep-green leaves up to 10 inches wide and three- to five-lobed. The stems are unarmed, lacking prickles. The white flowers are cup-shaped and mature to red aggregate berries, which taste rather dry and insipid. HABITAT/RANGE: Thimbleberry grows in moist to dry wooded to open sites, from sea level to the subalpine zone. It is well-distributed throughout the West, from Alaska to the Great Lakes and south to Montana, New Mexico and southern California. Blooms late May to July, with berries ripening July to September. FACTS/USES: The generic name means small-flowered. The berries are a special favorite of wildlife. The telltale red-stained droppings left on rocks and limbs by birds and other small animals indicate that ripe thimbleberries are not far away.


mountain ashMOUNTAIN ASH Sorbus scopulina This shrub or small tree reaches three to 15 feet in height. The leaves are large, alternate and pinnately divided into 11 to 17 elliptic, finely serrated leaflets. The small, cream-colored flowers are borne in terminal, flat-topped clusters. The flowers mature by late summer or early fall into a cluster of glossy, bright orange or scarlet berrylike fruits, which usually persist into the winter. HABITAT/RANGE: Mountain ash often is found in moist soils of canyons and mountain hillsides. It is distributed from Alaska to western Alberta, south to the Dakotas, Wyoming, New Mexico and northern California. Flowers from May until early July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means of the rocks, referring to its habit of establishing in rocky canyons and hillsides. The bitter berries are edible raw, cooked or dried, but are a bigger attractant for birds- especially cedar waxwings-than for humans.


shineleafspireaSHINY-LEAF SPIREA Spires betulifolia Shiny-leafspireaisadeciduous, erectshrut), onetothreefeet tall, arising from creeping rootstocks. It has rather oblong, birch-like leaves. The flowers are very small, less than one-eighth-inch long, with five sepals and five petals, and numerous protruding stamens. The white or pinkish-tinged flowers are densely arranged on a showy, flat-topped corymb. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant prefers deep, fertile and moist soils of open hillsides to dry woods. It occurs from British Columbia to Saskatchewan, South Dakota, Wyoming to Oregon, and also is found in Asia. Blooms early summer to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Greek word speira, meaning spiral or coil, which may refer to the spirally twisted seed pods. The specific name means birch-leaved.


0SUBALPINE SPIREA Spirea dens/flora This is a low plant that grows up to three feet tall and is branched with dark, red-brown bark. It is distinguished easily by its dense cluster of tiny, red or pinkish flowers arranged in a flat-topped corymb. The leaves are elliptic, toothed, bright green on the upper surface and slightly puberulent on the lower surface. The fruit is a cluster of five seed pods (follicles) containing several small seeds. HABITAT/RANGE: As the common name implies, this species is a dweller of subalpine zones. It prefers rocky sites and often can be found growing in the soil-filled cracks of rocks. It is found from southern British Columbia to Montana, Wyoming and central California. Flowers early to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The specific name means densely flowered. Spireas have a reputed medicinal use as a general tonic made by brewing a tea from the stem, leaves or flowers.




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